Viceroy Francisco Álvarez de Toledo was born in the Toledo city of Oropesa in 1515. Member of the Spanish army, since 1569 he held the position of viceroy of Peru, in charge of which he was almost 12 years. It is a very controversial historical character whose works have been praised and criticized by historians, sociologists, Americanists, etc.
Main works promoted by Viceroy ToledoViceroy Toledo
Viceroy Toledo's works revolve mainly around the administration of the Kingdom of Spain in the Viceroyalty. A Viceroyalty who, at the beginning, understood what is now Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Panama, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Colombia and Ecuador.
The territory was so extensive and so difficult to govern that the first thing Alvarez de Toledo did was to organize a series of visits to the different parts that made it up. They were made between 1570 and 1575 and their purpose was to register the human and natural resources of the Viceroyalty.
In this way he would know exactly what each one had to contribute to the public coffers. Fruit of it is its policy of reductions. Likewise, ordered the writing of the ordinances called 'de Toledo'. With them all aspects of the life of the inhabitants were regulated, both public and private, and of the cities: councils, justice, taxes, commerce ...
For these ordinances to come to fruition, a series of architectural and urban works were needed that would be the mainstay of changes in the life of the population and institutions. Thus, he carried out the construction of several buildings, infrastructure and urban reforms.
Mint of PotosíCourtyard of the Mint of Potosí
Founded in 1572 by Viceroy Toledo, he eventually replaced the Mint of Lima. It is a huge building of almost 8000 m² with five courtyards. Among them, the main one stands out, in which you can find a mask of the god Bacchus who smiles. They say the bad tongues that laugh at the Spaniards in their withdrawal from the city.
As well urbanized the city of Potosí with the traditional checkerboard of the cities of Latin America founded by Spaniards. And he built other buildings such as the Cajas Reales, the Iglesia Mayor and the Cabildo.
University of San Marcos de LimaCasona of the University of San Marcos - Kanon6996 - Wikimedia Commons
It was created by Viceroy Francisco de Toledo in his Provision of 1576. Although, this university had been working since before, although linked to the Dominicans since its founding in 1551. It will be the viceroy who converts it into a secular university by electing the jurist Pedro Fernández de Valenzuela as rector, who was not linked to the order .
Likewise, moved the host university, passing from the cloisters of the church of Santo Domingo to a building next to the church of San Marcelo and then to the house of the Recogimiento of San Juan de la Penitencia. There, in addition, he established 17 chairs with annual income.
As a complement to the university, founded the Colegio Mayor de San Felipe and San Marcos. It was a school in which to welcome the poorest students or students from other places with the intention of studying at this university in Lima.
Convent of Santa Catalina de ArequipaConvent of Santa Catalina in Arequipa
During the visit of Viceroy Francisco de Toledo to the city of Arequipa, the City Council transferred the desire of a group of upper-class Spaniards to found a private convent. This is how the opening license for this impressive monument was achieved, more than a monastery, it is a city in itself.
Other works promoted by Viceroy ToledoLima Weapons Square
Viceroy Toledo also led to many of the urban reforms of the moment and cleaning and supplying cities. Among them, the most prominent was to establish sources of water supply in the streets of the main cities. The most famous, the fountain of the Plaza de Armas de Lima.
He also made interventions to channel and channel the Rímac River in Lima. Y built bridges, hospitals and schools throughout the city. It also restructured the entire demography of the Viceroyalty, forcing indigenous people to live in newly created villages or reductions.
Therefore, many of the present-day villages are from this viceroy's era. Likewise, promoted the construction of buildings for councils, hospitals, slaughterhouses, and in general, institutional and relief buildings throughout the Viceroyalty.